Alternative names: Krienser Halszither Origin: Switzerland Tuning: G2, D3 D3, G3 G3, B3 B3, D4 D4 Strings/Courses: 9/5 Further notes: German for 'Neck zither', to differentiate from the type of zithers with open strings played on the lap. Zither is the German equivalent of the word Cittern. Steel strings. Scale Length: 370mm
Alternative names: Hardanger fiddle, Hardanger violin. Origin: South-western Norway. The earliest example is from 1651. Tuning: A3, D4, A4, E5 or A3, C4, A4, D5 or B3, E4, B4, F#5 Strings/Courses: 4/4 Further notes: Also has 4-9 sympathetic strings, Steel strings. Scale Length:
- See Bandurria, Philippine.
Alternative names:Kachapi, Kacapi, Kulcapi, Kecapi Origin: Malaysia Tuning: Strings/Courses: 2/2 Further notes: Not to be confused with a similar-named zither-type instrument. Scale Length:
Alternative names: Quinta Huapanguera Origin: Mexico Tuning: G2, D3 D4, G3 G3, B3 B3, E3 or G2 G2, D3 D3, G3 G3, B3, E4. Strings/Courses: Usually 8/5, but sometimes 6/5 (only the middle string doubled) or 5/5 (all single). Further notes: Nylon strings Scale Length: 620mm
- See Walaycho.
Alternative names: Hubo, Sugudu, Origin: China Tuning: E2, A2, D3, G3 or A2, D3, G3 C4 or A2, C3, D3, A3 Strings/Courses: 4/4 Further notes: There is also an older, pear-shaped variety, but this is rare nowadays. 3 silk strings, 1 metal. Scale Length: 480mm
Alternative names: Hommel, Humle. Origin: Sweden, 17th century. Tuning: Usually tuned to an open chord. Strings/Courses: Further notes: Scale Length: No Standard.
Alternative names: Origin: France, 12th century. Tuning: A A, G, C Strings/Courses: Further notes: Some strings are drones. Steel strings. Scale Length:
Alternative names: Nigenkin (when it has 2 strings) Origin: Japan, Tuning: Strings/Courses: 1/1 or 2/2 Further notes: Traditionally played in some Shinto ceremonies. Silk string(s). Scale Length:
Alternative names: Ikili, Egel, Ehel Origin: Tuva, South-eastern Russia. Tuning: Strings/Courses: 2/2 Further notes: Nylon or horse hair strings. Scale Length:
Alternative names: Imzad Origin: Niger, Algeria and nothern Mali. Tuning: No standard. Strings/Courses: 1/1 Further notes: Horse hair string. Scale Length: No standard.